Monoclonal Antibodies, Production and Applications

Monoclonal antibodies are identical because they are produced by a clone of plasmocytes. Monoclonal antibodies are widely used in biology and medicine, both as diagnostic tools and for therapeutic purposes.

Rabbit Antibody

– In vitro is very difficult because of the short life of the plasma cells.
– In-vivo, the production of these antibodies can be obtained by injecting into the animal a given antigen, then extracting them in the blood. This method is very expensive and very few antibodies are obtained.

This technique consists of injecting the antigen of interest into a mouse and then, after a few weeks, taking the cells of the spleen.
Plasmocytes secreting antibodies directed specifically against the selected antigen.
These plasma cells are fused with tumor cells called myeloma cells, which induces membrane fusion and thus allows hybridomas that have the ability to multiply faster than the body’s normal cells producing antibodies. The cells are then distributed in multiwell plates.

Anti-Mouse Antibody
Antibody

After about ten days, each well is tested for the presence of antibodies directed against the antigen used to immunize the mouse. The producer cells are transplanted. Some cell-producing clones are thus isolated and can be stored in liquid nitrogen.

Examples of application

Ovulation test: monoclonal antibodies against luteinizing hormone that reveal the increase in the level of hormone LH
Pregnancy test: the principle is based on the detection of the hormone hGC (human Chorionic Gonadotropin) in the urine
Manufacture of monoclonal antibodies against antigens carried by tumor cells to destroy target cells.
Elisa test: use of monoclonal antibodies as tracer antibodies in the Elisa (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay) test. This type of test is used in particular for demonstrating the presence of anti-HIV antibodies in the serum.

virus-vector
Anti-Human Antibody

Disadvantages

Since most monoclonal antibodies are produced in rodent cells, an immune response can be seen when they are injected into a patient. This imunity progressively inactivates the beneficial action of the monoclonal antibody. To remedy this problem, “chimeric” or “humanized” antibodies are produced.

Chimeric antibodies are obtained by grafting the constant portions of human immunoglobulin onto the variable portions of a mouse antibody.

Blood Antibody
Tommy Ounas

Tommy Ounas

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